Tourmaline is both the modern alternative birthstone for October and the stone of the 8th wedding anniversary. It was only recognised by scientists in the 1800’s, after being confused for other gemstones for centuries. This is because Tourmaline has one of the widest colour ranges of any gemstone; from delicate pinks, through rich greens to deep blues. In fact, the name tourmaline comes from the word ‘toramalli’, which means ‘mixed gems’ in the Sri-Lankan language Sinhalese.
Different colours of tourmaline are known by different names. Red/dark pink tourmaline is known as rubelite, greenish blue as indicolite, black tourmaline as schorl, brown tourmaline as dravite and the bi-coloured tourmaline with pink in the centre and green outer as watermelon. The rarest colour to find is pink tourmaline.
As tourmaline was discovered fairly recently (in geology terms anyway) it doesn’t have the rich ancient history of other birthstones. The Russian Romanov royal dynasty was particularly fond of tourmaline. Catherine the Great owned several, including this fruity brooch known as ‘Caesars Ruby’.
Tourmaline has a rather strange property; it can produce an electric charge! When heated it produces a pyroelectric charge and when pressure is applied it produces piezoelectricity. Because of this, tourmaline was used as an electrical component in sonar, especially during WW2, when demand for the mineral increased. Benjamin Franklin is also believed to have used tourmaline in his studies of electricity.
Pearl is the Birthstone for the month of June and the traditional gift for a 30th wedding anniversary. Pearls are one of only four gemstones (Amber, Coral and Jet being the others) that are organic, rather than mineral. Most pearls on the market today are cultured, freshwater pearls. This because naturally formed pearls are very rare (about 1 in 2000 shells might contain a pearl) making them rather expensive! They are both made of the same substance and take the same amount of time to create, but process that begins the initial life of a pearl is artificial, with a piece of shell being placed into an oyster.
Most people think that natural pearls are formed when a grain of sand gets inside an oyster or mollusc and as a defence mechanism, the shellfish forms a protective layer of calcium carbonate around the irritant. This layer of calcium carbonate or nacre continues to form over a period of up to seven years before becoming what we would recognise as a pearl. Most of this is scientifically accurate, except for that it often isn’t a grain of sand, but a tapeworm larvae excreted by other creatures such as sharks that is the initial irritant! Not quite as romantic sounding… The V&A (one of my favourite places in the whole world) had an exhibition all about pearls a few months ago and along with having some fabulous examples, debunked this particular myth. The V&A also made a fabulous film for the exhibition, which you can see at the bottom of this post.
I love using pearls in my jewellery; taking something so classic and universally recognised and incorporating it into contemporary pieces is a joy.
Pearls have been used in jewellery making for thousands of years and have always been a sign of wealth and status. A Roman general is once said to have paid for a military campaign by selling his mothers pearl earrings, Charles I wore a pearl drop earring when he was beheaded and one of the few items of jewellery Marilyn Monroe wore was a pearl necklace given to her by her then husband, Joe DiMaggio. But my favourite tale involves Cleopatra. She bet Marc Anthony that she could put on the most expensive dinner in history. Cleopatra proceeded to crush one of her pearl earrings into her drink and drank it. She offered to crush the other for Anthony. He declined.
Doesn’t hearing the word Emerald instantly make you think of The Wizard of Oz and the Emerald City? If it makes you think of Ireland (known as the ‘Emerald Isle’ due to its lush green countryside) or even Seattle in Washington State USA (also known as the Emerald City, not sure why?) that’s ok too. Emerald is also the traditional birthstone for the month of May, as well as the stone for 20th and 55th wedding anniversaries.
Emerald is a precious gem, and sits alongside diamond, ruby and sapphire in rarity and cost. Weight for weight, Emeralds are some of the most expensive of the precious gems, sometimes even beating diamonds on price. It is also of the few stones that isn’t expected to be completely clear and inclusion free. In fact, specks and cloudiness are considered part of its charm and do not affect the value negatively.
The word Emerald comes from a variety of sources; the Old French ‘Esmeraude’; Middle English ‘Emeraude’; from the Vulgar Latin; ‘Esmaralda/Esmaraldus’ and a variant of the Greek word ‘Smaragdos’ which means ‘green stone’.
In Ancient Egypt, Cleopatra was apparently fanatical about emeralds and claimed one of the earliest known emerald mines for her own. The Incas hoarded vast quantities of emeralds, as they were the stone of the goddess Esmeralda. https://www.devonhealthandwellbeing.org.uk/buy-cialis-tadalafil-online-uk/. The Romans thought it to be soothing for the eyes to look at an emerald and Emperor Nero is recorded as having an eye glass made of emerald for watching gladiatorial contests.
Using emerald in jewellery has continued to be popular, through the middle ages to Art Deco to modern day. Royalty such as Queen Elizabeth II has many emerald pieces including the Cambridge Emerald Choker.
The official gemstone for the month of April is diamond; a girls best friends according to Marilyn Monroe in the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes! And its no wonder as in skilled hands, rough diamonds can be transformed into the most beautiful gems. The name ‘diamond’ comes from the Greek adamas, which means something unbreakable and invincible. They are made from carbon, the most abundant mineral on earth, and are formed over millions of years of pressure a mile below the surface of the earth. Diamonds have some truly amazing properties. They have the densest atomical structure, will not react to acid or chemicals, a high level of thermal conductivity (meaning they always feel cold), the highest refractive ability and are the hardest natural material on earth. No one wonder they are so highly prized!
Pretty much every culture on earth has diamonds as part of their folklore and myths. The first known record comes from a Sanskrit text around 322 BC – 185 BC, the ancient Greeks and Romans believed they were tears of the Gods and King Louis IX passed a law stating only kings could wear diamonds. One of the most famous diamonds is the Koh-i-Nur, presented to Queen Victoria in 1850, and was reset into a platinum crown for The Queen Mother in 1937.
Not everyone can afford diamonds, and clear quartz or rock crystal is an affordable alternative. Its is one of the most abundant minerals on earth and comes in many different varieties such as citrine, amethyst and rose quartz. Herkimer diamonds are a particularly sought after variety from Herkimer County, New York. They are prized for their clarity and unique double pointed terminations.
In Europe and the Middle East quartz has been commonly used for jewellery, and up until the 19th century for figure carving, engraved cameos and even vessels like jugs and vases.
Aquamarine, the traditional birthstone for March, is a member of the beryl family and whilst generally pale blue in colour, ranges to almost green and even bright blue.
Unsurprisingly, it has long been associated with the sea. Sailors as a far back as the 5th century believed it was a mermaids treasure and that it would keep them safe whilst at sea. Its name even derives from the Latin aqua marina, meaning “water of the sea”.
By the late middle ages it was also believed to be a powerful antidote to poison and jewellery was set with the stone and worn as protection. Aquamarine was also believed to hold mystical powers of divination and was often used in fortune telling. There is even suggestion that the date of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth 1st was decided by her astrologer Dr John Dee using a crystal ball made of aquamarine to aid him in reading her horoscope.
But the weirdest fact I have found is that the Romans thought that if you carved a frog onto aquamarine, it would make friends out of enemies. If anyone knows why the image of a frog was significant, please let me know!
The month of February has Amethyst, a beautiful purple variety of quartz as its birthstone.
The word amethyst can be translated from the Greek “amethystos” which roughly translates as “not drunken”! In fact for centuries amethyst was considered a potent cure for intoxication and wine goblets were made out of the stone.
Prehistoric man used amethyst as a decorative stone as far as 25,000 years ago in France and it is said that Cleopatra owned an engraved signet ring made from amethyst too.
The stones link with the month of February comes from its association with Saint Valentine, the third-century Roman saint who died on February 14th. According to legend, he wore an amethyst engraved with the figure of Cupid.
To this day, the regal purple of amethyst is associated with royalty and religion, with clothing, jewellery and ceremonial objects incorporating both the colour and the stone itself.
The deep almost blood-red of the garnet has been used in jewellery since prehistoric times, although garnets are actually a group of stones and naturally occur in all colours except blue! The word garnet derives from the Latin for ‘seed-like’, referring to the stones similar appearance to the seeds of pomegranates. As well as being the birthstone for January, it is one of the modern themes for 2nd wedding anniversary gifts. Garnet is commonly found in many countries and so has been used in jewellery by many cultures throughout history including the ancient Egyptians, Romans and Greeks.
The Anglo-Saxons used garnet a great deal, especially in detailed cloisonné work, where stones or glass is inlaid between gold wires. The hoard found at Sutton Hoo, Suffolk, UK, held some of the finest examples, many of which can now be found in the British Museum.
Garnet was long believed to be protection from nightmares, poison and even vampires! Cultural references to a ‘carbuncle stone’ although meaning any red cabochon stone (not the medical variety of carbuncle which is a large red boil or abscess!) was generally referring to a garnet. Such references occur in The Bible (Ezekiel 28:13 refers to the carbuncle’s presence in the Garden of Eden), Shakespeare’s Hamlet (in act 2 scene 2 line 401: “With eyes like carbuncles, the hellish Pyrrhus…”), in The Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis the phrase “precious as carbuncles” is used several times and even today, Carbuncle is a creature in the Final Fantasy computer game.
Turquoise is one of the birthstones for December, the other being the more costly Tanzanite.
One the earliest known stones to be used in jewellery, Turquoise has been found in tombs of Pharaohs dated to 5500BC and in a huge variety of items from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iran) including daggers, bowls and decorative ornaments. It also has a strong association with the south west states of America.
Native American culture calls the stone as Chal-cui-hui-tal, meaning the ‘highest and most valued thing in the world’. I first remember coming across Turquoise at school when studying the Aztecs. They were famous for using the stone, particularly to decorate mosaic masks. They considered the stone sacred and the finest examples were referred to as teoxihuitl; ‘the property, the lot, of the god’.
The name Turquoise derives from is arrival in Europe from Turkey during the crusades, giving it the name ‘Turkish Stone’.
Turquoise is a relatively soft stone, and can vary in colour from bright blue green. Turquoise with more blue contains more copper and green Turquoise more iron.
I love gemstones and semi-precious stones and collected them as a little kid. Its not just their beauty, but that they have been formed over thousands of years. Its no wonder that before the mass production of glass beads, semi-precious stones we not only used for decoration and in jewellery but were also attributed meaning and stories.
I have been using semi-precious beads in my jewellery for a while, just because I liked them, but decided to start using beads to make birthstone jewellery. The tradition of having a single birthstone for each month of the year has been around for a few centuries (historians differ on the exact date- anywhere between the 15th and 17th century!) but the idea of having a stone related to the month of the year can be traced back to the 1st century AD. If you are interested in the history of gemstones, the book ‘The Curious Lore Of Precious Stones’ by George Kunz is available to read online. Its not exactly bedtime reading, but interesting to skim through!
I thought I would share the information I was finding by writing a series of posts about the birthstone for each month.
A lot of people also attribute healing qualities to certain stones, which sometimes I will refer to, but generally I am interested in the folklore and historical mentions of the stones.
For the month of November the modern birthstone is citrine!
Citrine is a yellow form of Quartz. It was known to the ancient Greeks and the Romans called it the stone of Mercury. It was once considered to be a talisman against snake venom, but it has also been referred to as the merchants stone as it was considered to bring success and fortune. Some biblical scholars also believe it may have been the golden yellow 10th stone on Aaron’s breastplate mentioned in the book of Exodus.
Queen Victoria was great lover of citrine, partly due to the stone being found in the Scottish Cairngorms, near the house she loved; Balmoral. So she started wearing jewellery with citrine stones and what the Queen wore, so did the public. Traditionally, citrine had also been used to adorn the hilts of daggers used by Scottish warriors in the 17th century.